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    英語閱讀作文差,多數因為長短句!這份句子詳盡解析你絕對需要!

      句子是構成篇章的基本單位,要讀懂一篇文章,首先要理解每個句子。同樣,要寫出一篇文章,首先要寫好每個句子。一個句子最短的基本成分是“主+謂”,最長的基本成分是“主+謂+賓+補”。…

      句子是構成篇章的基本單位,要讀懂一篇文章,首先要理解每個句子。同樣,要寫出一篇文章,首先要寫好每個句子。一個句子最短的基本成分是“主+謂”,最長的基本成分是“主+謂+賓+補”。基本成分的修飾語為附屬成分:定語―修飾限制名詞或代詞的單詞、短語或從句;狀語―修飾限制謂語、句子或句子里一部分的單詞、短語或從句。

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      一、附屬成分作定語

      英語中的定語可分為限制性定語和非限制性定語。用來作定語的有:名詞、數詞、形容詞、代詞、副詞、介詞短語、非謂語動詞和定語從句等等。

      1. 限制性定語:單個詞放在被修飾的詞前面,短語和從句放在被修飾的詞后面。

      (1)名詞、形容詞、副詞、數詞、代詞或介詞短語等;

      ①She worked in a shoe factory.

      ②Please don’t be so cruel to a ten-year-old child like that.

      副詞作定語一般放在被修飾的詞后面, 以表示位置的居多。如:

      ③Do you know the man over there?

      ④Poor Jack tottered toward a hospital nearby.

      present, absent, a-開頭的形容詞和形容詞短語作定語放在被修飾的詞之后。可以理解成which /that / who +is(was) / are(were)引導的定語從句的省略。如:

      ⑤All the people present at the party were his supporters.

      ⑥I think he is the oldest man alive in the small town.

      (2)非謂語動詞(短語),一般可轉換成限制性定語從句。

      ①Let’s find a restaurant to have lunch in.

      句中黑體部分可改為:where/in which we can have lunch

      ②The repairs cost a lot, but it’s money well spent.

      句中黑體部分可改為:that/which was well spent

      【注】 -ing形式作定語時只能用一般式, 表示與謂語動詞動作同時發生,不可使用其完成式。如:

      ③Suddenly, a tall man driving a golden carriage seized the girl and took her away, disappearing into the woods.

      句中黑體部分可改為:who/that was driving a golden carriage

      ④The flowers smelling sweet in the botanic garden attract the visitors to the beauty of nature.

      句中黑體部分可改為:that/which smell sweet in the botanic garden

      (3)限制性定語從句。

      ①We are living in an age when/in which many things are done on computer.

      ②Many people who had seen the film were afraid to go to the forest when they remembered the scenes in which people were eaten by the tiger.

      2. 非限制性定語,一般放在后面,對中心詞起修飾作用,而不對其進行限制。省略之后對句子意思的表達影響不大。

      (1)名詞、數詞、形容詞等短語,可理解為一個省略的非限制性定語從句。

      ①David, our English teacher, appreciated your idea much.

      句中黑體部分可改為:who was our English teacher

      ②He was sent to France, a European country.

      句中黑體部分可改為:which was a European country

      (2)非謂語動詞(短語),一般可轉換成非限制性定語從句。如:

      The manager, making it clear to us that he didn’t agree with us, left the meeting room.

      句中黑體部分可改為: who made it clear to us that he didn’t agree with us

      (3)非限制性定語從句,常可轉換成分詞或并列句。如:

      ①John said he’d been working in the office for an hour, which was true.

      句中黑體部分可改為:and it was true

      ②The famous basketball star, who tried to make a comeback, attracted a lot of attention.

      句中黑體部分可改為:trying to make a comeback

      【注】 as引導的非限制性定語從句常可提前,但and引導的并列句應在前一個分句后。如:

      As is often the case, we have worked out the production plan.

      可改為:We have worked out the production plan and it is often the case.

      二、附屬成分作狀語

      狀語是用來修飾限制謂語?整個句子或句子里的一部分。常用來作狀語的有:形容詞?副詞?介詞短語?非謂語動詞和狀語從句等等。狀語和句子間的邏輯關系各有不同,可以分成不同的狀語:原因狀語、時間狀語、條件狀語、結果狀語、讓步狀語、伴隨狀語、目的狀語、結果狀語等等。

      1、形容詞、副詞和介詞短語等作狀語。如:

      ①Thirsty, he went into a tea house. (thirsty 是形容詞,可看成是分詞短語being thirsty的省略,對主語he進行補充說明)

      ②She sat quietly in her seat.(quietly是副詞,修飾動作sat)

      【注】 形容詞通常不作狀語,偶爾有形容詞作狀語,通常表示原因、方式、伴隨、時間、讓步等。如:

      ③He came in, full of fear. (表伴隨,相當于When he came in, he was full of fear.)

      ④Ripe, the fruit tastes better. (表時間,相當于When the fruit is ripe.)

      ⑤Right or wrong, I will stand on your side. (表讓步,相當于Whether you are right or wrong.)

      2、非謂語動詞(短語),可轉換成狀語從句。如:

      ①Lost in the mountains for a week, the two students were finally saved by the local police. =句中黑體部分可補充為:After they were lost in the mountains for a week.

      ②It was unbelievable that the fans waited outside the gym for three hours just to have a look at the sports stars.

      句中黑體部分可改為:in order that they could have a look at the sports stars

      3、狀語從句。

      ①The house could fall down soon if no one does some quick repair work. (表條件)

      ②Roses need special care so that they can live through winter. (表目的)

      ③Since /as the weather is so bad, we have to delay our journey.(表原因)

      ④He speaks English as though he were an Englishman. (表方式)

      熟練掌握句子的附屬成分,對準確理解句子意思大有裨益,對長句的理解很有好處。在閱讀中,有利于將長句讀短,去掉枝蔓,抓住核心,提高篇章的理解能力。了解句子的附屬成分也有助于寫作。正確使用好句子附屬成分能將意思表達更加準確,敘述更加生動,豐富表達方式,增強文章感染力。

    本文來自網絡,不代表一鳴英語網立場,轉載請注明出處:http://www.wxjbf.com/ljc/yyyf/2216/

    作者: admin

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